Female genital mutilation (FGM)
Female genital mutilation (FGM) affects about 130 million women or girls in the world, with about 2 million girls undergoing the procedure every year. Heavy bleeding, infection, tetanus, gangrene, sepsis and death may result. All women who have undergone this procedure suffer from sexual dysfunction and loss of sexual pleasure.
FGM means partial or complete non-therapeutic removal or injury of the female genitals for religious or cultural reasons. Four types of FGM are described:
- Type 1 Removal of the clitoris foreskin
- Type 2 Removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora
- Type 3 (Infibulation) Removal of the clitoris and the labia majora and labia minora, sewing up the vaginal orifice, leaving only a small opening for urine and menstruation blood
- Type 4 Other types of pricking, piercing, stretching and /or scraping of the vagina
Painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and vaginismus are common side effects to Female Genital Mutilation
After type 3 FGM the risk of infertility is around 25-30%. Painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and vaginismus are common side effects. Damage to the nerves alters genital sensation which can result in chronic pain.